Östersund map SaTScan™ - Software for the spatial, temporal, and space-time scan statistics New York City map

SaTScan Bibliography

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Methodological Papers


Selected Applications by Field of Study

Methodological Papers

Statistical Methodology

General Statistical Theory, Bernoulli and Poisson Models

Kulldorff M. A spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, 1997; 26:1481-1496. [view]

Spatial Scan Statistic, Bernoulli Model

Kulldorff M, Nagarwalla N. Spatial disease clusters: Detection and Inference. Statistics in Medicine, 1995; 14:799-810. [view]

Retrospective Space-Time Scan Statistic

Kulldorff M, Athas W, Feuer E, Miller B, Key C. Evaluating cluster alarms: A space-time scan statistic and brain cancer in Los Alamos. American Journal of Public Health, 1998; 88:1377-1380. [view]

Prospective Space-Time Scan Statistic

Kulldorff M. Prospective time-periodic geographical disease surveillance using a scan statistic. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 2001; A164:61-72. [view]

Space-Time Permutation Model

Kulldorff M, Heffernan R, Hartman J, Assunção RM, Mostashari F. A space-time permutation scan statistic for the early detection of disease outbreaks. PLoS Medicine, 2005; 2:216-224. [view]

Multinomial Model

Jung I, Kulldorff M, Richard OJ. A spatial scan statistic for multinomial data. Statistics in Medicine, 2010, epub. [view]

Ordinal Model

Jung I, Kulldorff M, Klassen A. A spatial scan statistic for ordinal data. Statistics in Medicine, 2007; 26:1594–1607 [view]

Exponential Model

Huang L, Kulldorff M, Gregorio D. A spatial scan statistic for survival data. Biometrics, 2007, 63:109-118. [view]

Normal Model

Kulldorff M, Huang L, Konty K. A scan statistic for continuous data based on the normal probability model. International Journal of Health Geographics, 2009, 8:58. [view]

Weighted Normal Model

Huang L, Huang L, Tiwari R, Zuo J, Kulldorff M, Feuer E. Weighted normal spatial scan statistic for heterogeneous population data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 2009, 104:886-898. [view]

Spatial Variation in Temporal Trends

Manuscript in preparation.

Multivariate Scan Statistic

Kulldorff M, Mostashari F, Duczmal L, Yih K, Kleinman K, Platt R. Multivariate spatial scan statistics for disease surveillance. Statistics in Medicine, 2007, 26:1824-1833. [view]

Elliptic Scanning Window

Kulldorff M, Huang L, Pickle L, Duczmal L. An elliptic spatial scan statistic. Statistics in Medicine, 2006, 25:3929-3943. [view]

Isotonic Spatial Scan Statistic

Kulldorff M. An isotonic spatial scan statistic for geographical disease surveillance. Journal of the National Institute of Public Health, 1999;48:94-101. [view]

Monte Carlo Hypothesis Testing

Dwass M. Modified randomization tests for nonparametric hypotheses. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 1957; 28:181-187.

Besag J, Clifford J. Sequential Monte Carlo p-values. Biometrika, 1991; 78:301-330.

Silva I, Assunção RM, Costa M. Power of the sequential Monte Carlo test. Sequential Analysis, 2009; 28:163-174.

Gumbel P-Values

Abrams A, Kleinman K, Kulldorff M. Gumbel based p-value approximations for spatial scan statistics. International Journal of Health Geographics 2010, 9:61.Manuscript, 2008. [view]

Read S, Bath PA, Willett P, Maheswaran R. A study on the use of Gumbel approximation with the Bernoulli spatial scan statistic. Statistics in Medicine, 2013.

Recurrence Intervals

Kleinman K, Lazarus R, Platt R. A generalized linear mixed models approach for detecting incident clusters of disease in small areas, with an application to biological terrorism. American Journal of Epidemiology, 159:217-24, 2004.

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Adjusting for Covariates

Kulldorff M. A spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, 26:1481-1496, 1997. [ view]

Kulldorff M, Feuer EJ, Miller BA, Freedman LS. Breast cancer in northeastern United States: A geographical analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146:161-170, 1997. [view]

Kleinman K, Abrams A, Kulldorff M, Platt R. A model-adjusted space-time scan statistic with an application to syndromic surveillance. Epidemiology and Infection, 2005, 133:409-419.

Klassen A, Kulldorff M, Curriero F. Geographical clustering of prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis, before and after adjustment for risk factors. International Journal of Health Geographics, 2005, 4:1. [view]

Huang L, Kulldorff M, Gregorio D. A spatial scan statistic for survival data. Biometrics, 2006, in press. [ view]

Iterative Scan Statistics, Adjusting for More Likely Clusters

Zhang Z, Kulldorff M, Assunção R. Spatial scan statistics adjusted for multiple clusters. Journal of Probability and Statistics, 2010, 642379.

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Computational Aspects


Kulldorff M. Spatial scan statistics: Models, calculations and applications. In Balakrishnan and Glaz (eds), Recent Advances on Scan Statistics and Applications. Boston, USA: Birkhäuser, 1999. [view]

Random Number Generator

Lehmer DH. Mathematical methods in large-scale computing units. In Proceedings of the second symposium on large scale digital computing machinery. Cambridge, USA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1951.

Park SK, Miller KW. Random number generators: Good ones are hard to find. Communications of the ACM, 31:1192-1201, 1988.


Abrams AM, Kleinman KP. A SaTScan (TM) macro accessory for cartography (SMAC) package implemented with SAS (R) software. International Journal of Health Geographics, 6:6,2007. [view]

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Reporting, Visualization and Mapping

Boscoe FP, McLaughlin C, Schymura MJ, Kielb CL. Visualization of the spatial scan statistic using nested circles. Health and Place, 9:273-277, 2003.

North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, SaTScan-Google Earth Cluster Viewer. [view]

Han J, et al. Determining optional cluster reporting sizes for spatial scan statistics. Manuscript in preparation, 2013.

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Methods Evaluations and Comparisons

Kulldorff M, Tango T, Park P. Power comparisons for disease clustering tests. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 42:665-684, 2003.

Song C, Kulldorff M. Power evaluation of disease clustering tests. International Journal of Health Geographics, 2:9, 2003. [view]

Kulldorff M, Zhang Z, Hartman J, Heffernan R, Huang L, Mostashari F. Evaluating disease outbreak detection methods: Benchmark data and power calculations. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53:144-151, 2004. [view]

Nordin J, Goodman M, Kulldorff M, Ritzwoller D, Abrams A, Kleinman K, Levitt MJ, Donahue J, Platt R. Using modeled anthrax attacks on the Mall of America to assess sensitivity of syndromic surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11:1394-1398, 2005. [view]

Ozdenerol E, Williams BL, Kang SY, Magsumbol MS. Comparison of spatial scan statistic and spatial filtering in estimating low birth weight clusters. International Journal of Health Geographics, 4:19, 2005. [view]

Costa MA, Assunção RM. A fair comparison between the spatial scan and Besag-Newell disease clustering tests. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 12:301-319, 2005.

Tango T, Takahashi K. A flexibly shaped spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters. International Journal of Health Geographics, 4:11, 2005. [view]

Kulldorff M, Song C, Gregorio D, Samociuk H, DeChello L. Cancer map patterns: Are they random or not? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30:S37-49, 2006. [view]

Duczmal L, Kulldorff M, Huang L. Evaluation of spatial scan statistics for irregular shaped clusters. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 15:428-442, 2006.

Aamodt G, Samuelsen SO, Skrondal A. A simulation study of three methods for detecting disease clusters. International Journal of Health Geographics, 5:15, 2006. [view]

Jackson MC, Huang L, Luo J, Hachey M, Feuer E. Comparison of tests for spatial heterogeneity on data with global clustering patterns and outliers. International Journal of Health Geographics 2009;8:55. [view]

Wheeler DC. A comparison of spatial clustering and cluster detection techniques for childhood leukemia incidence in Ohio, 1996–2003. International Journal of Health Geographics 2007;6:13. [view]

Goujon-Bellec S, Demoury C, Guyot-Goubin A, Hémon D, Clavel J. Detection of clusters of a rare disease over a large territory: performance of cluster detection methods. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2011:10:53. [view]

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Selected Applications by Field of Study

Respiratory Infectious Diseases

Bakker MI, Hatta M, Kwenang A, Faber WR, van Beers SM, Klatser PR, Oskam L. Population survey to determine risk factors for Mycobacterium leprae transmission and infection. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33: 1329-1336, 2004.

Andrade AL, Silva SA, Martelli CM, Oliveira RM, Morais Neto OL, Siqueira Junior JB, Melo LK, Di Fabio JL. Population-based surveillance of pediatric pneumonia: use of spatial analysis in an urban area of Central Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 20: 411-421, 2004. [view]

Moore GE, Ward MP, Kulldorff M, Caldanaro RJ, Guptill LF, Lewis HB, Glickman LT. Identification of a space-time cluster of canine rabies vaccine-associated adverse events using a very large veterinary practice database. Vaccine, epub ahead of print, 2005.

Elias J, Harmsen D, Claus H, Hellenbrand W, Frosch M, Vogel U. Spatiotemporal analysis of invasive meningococcal disease, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12:1689-1695, 2006. [view]

Oeltmann JE, Varma JK, Ortega L, Liu Y, O'Rourke T, Cano M, Harrington T, Toney S, Jones W, Karuchit S, Diem L, Rienthong D, Tappero JW, Ijaz K, Maloney, S. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak among US-bound Hmong Refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14:1715-1721, 2008. [view]

Fischer EAJ, Pahan D, Chowdhury SK, Oskam L, Richardus JH. The spatial distribution of leprosy in four villages in Bangladesh: An observational study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 8:125, 2008.

Liang L, Xu B, Chen Y, Liu Y, Cao W, Fang L, Feng L, Goodchild MF, Gong P. Combining spatial-temporal and phylogenetic analysis approaches for improved understanding on global H5N1 transmission. PLoS One. 5:e13575, 2010. [view]

Kammerer JS, Shang N, Althomsons SP, Haddad MB, Grant J, Navin TR. Using statistical methods and genotyping to detect tuberculosis outbreaks. International Journal of Health Geographics, 12:15, 2013. [view]

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Food and Water Borne Diseases

Cruz Payão Pellegrini D. Análise espaço-temporal da leptospirose no município do Rio de Janeiro (1995-1999). Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 2002. [view]

Enemark HL, Ahrens P, Juel CD, Petersen E, Petersen RF, Andersen JS, Lind P, Thamsborg SM. Molecular characterization of Danish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates. Parasitology, 125:331-341, 2002.

Sauders BD, Fortes ED, Morse DL, Dumas N, Kiehlbauch JA, Schukken Y, Hibbs JR, Wiedmann M. Molecular subtyping to detect human listeriosis clusters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9:672-680, 2003. [view]

Odoi A, Martin SW, Michel P, Middleton D, Holt J, Wilson J. Investigation of clusters of giardiasis using GIS and a spatial scan statistic. International Journal of Health Geographics, 3:11, 2004. [view]

Jones RC, Liberatore M, Fernandez JR Gerber SI. Use of a prospective space-time scan statistic to prioritize shigellosis case investigations in an urban jurisdiction. Public Health Reports, 121:133-9, 2006.

Pearl DL, Louie M, Chui L, Dore K, Grimsrud KM, Leedell D, Martin SW, Michel P, Svenson LW, McEwen SA. The use of outbreak information in the interpretation of clustering of reported cases of Escherichia coli O157 in space and time in Alberta, Canada, 2000-2002. Epidemiology and Infection, pud ahead of print, 2006.

de Souza EA, da Silva-Nunes M, Malafronte Rdos S, Muniz PT, Cardoso MA, Ferreira MU. Prevalence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in a rural Amazonian settlement, Acre State, Brazil. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 23:427-34, 2007. [view]

Osei FB, Duker AA. Spatial dependency of V. cholera prevalence on open space refuse dumps in Kumasi, Ghana: a spatial statistical modeling. International Journal of Health Geographics, 7:62, 2008. [view]

Sowmyanarayanan TV, Mukhopadhya A, Gladstone BP, Sarkar R, Kang G. Investigation of a hepatitis A outbreak in children in an urban slum in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, using geographic information systems. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 128:32-37, 2008.

Oviedo M, Munoz P, Dominguez A, Carmona G, Batalla J, Borras E, Jansá JM. Evaluation of Mass Vaccination Programmes: The experience of hepatitis A in Catalonia (in Spanish). Revista Española de Salud Pública, 83:697-709, 2009. [view]

Luquero FJ, Banga CN, Remartínez D, Palma PP, Baron E, Grais RF. Cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau (2008): the importance of "place". PLoS One, 6:e19005, 2011. [view]

Bompangue Nkoko D, Giraudoux P, Plisnier PD, Tinda AM, Piarroux M, Sudre B, Horion S, Tamfum JJ, Ilunga BK, Piarroux R. Dynamics of cholera outbreaks in Great Lakes region of Africa, 1978-2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17:2026-2034, 2011. [view]

Tang F, Cheng Y, Bao C, Hu J, Liu W, Liang W, Wu Y, Norris J, Peng Z, Yu R, Shen H, Chen F. Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Shigella from 2001 to 2011 in Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China. PLoS ONE, 9:e83487, 2014. [view]

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Jennings JM, Curriero FC, Celentano D, Ellen JM. Geographic identification of high gonorrhea transmission areas in Baltimore, Maryland. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161: 73-80, 2005.

Wylie JL, Cabral T, Jolly AM. Identification of networks of sexually transmitted infection: a molecular, geographic, and social network analysis. J Infect Diseases, 191:899-906, 2005.

Wand H, Ramjee G. Targeting the hotspots: Investigating spatial and demographic variations in HIV infection in small communities in South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 13:41, 2010. [view]

Egger JR, Konty KJ, Borrelli JM, Cummiskey J, Blank S. Monitoring temporal changes in the specificity of an oral HIV test: a novel application for use in postmarketing surveillance.PLoS One, 25:e12231, 2010. [view]

Gesink DC, Sullivan AB, Miller WC, Bernstein KT. Sexually transmitted disease core theory: roles of person, place, and time. American Journal of Epidemiology. 174:81-9, 2011.

Hixon BA, Omer SA, del Rio C, Frew PM. Spatial clustering of HIV prevalence in Atlanta, Georgia and population characteristics associated with case concentrations. Journal of Urban Health, 88:129-141, 2011.

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Vector Borne Diseases

Fevre EM, Coleman PG, Odiit M, Magona JW, Welburn SC, Woolhouse MEJ. The origins of a new Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness outbreak in eastern Uganda. The Lancet, 358:625-628, 2001.

Chaput EK, Meek JI, Heimer R. Spatial analysis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis near Lyme, Connecticut. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8:943-948, 2002. [view]

Mostashari F, Kulldorff M, Hartman JJ, Miller JR, Kulasekera V. Dead bird clustering: A potential early warning system for West Nile virus activity. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9:641-646, 2003. [view]

Ghebreyesus TA, Byass P, Witten KH, Getachew A, Haile M, Yohannes M, Lindsay SW. Appropriate Tools and Methods for Tropical Microepidemiology: a Case-study of Malaria Clustering in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 17:1-8, 2003.

Brooker S, Clarke S, Njagi JK, Polack S, Mugo B, Estambale B, Muchiri E, Magnussen P, Cox J. Spatial clustering of malaria and associated risk factors during an epidemic in a highland area of western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 9: 757-766, 2004.

Washington CH, Radday J, Streit TG, Boyd HA, Beach MJ, Addiss DG, Lovince R, Lovegrove MC, Lafontant JG, Lammie PJ, Hightower AW. Spatial clustering of filarial transmission before and after a Mass Drug Administration in a setting of low infection prevalence. Filaria Journal, 3:3, 2004. [view]

Gosselin PL, Lebel G, Rivest S, Fradet MD. The Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV): a real-time GIS for surveillance and decision-making. International Journal of Health Geographics, 4:21, 2005. [view]

Gaudart J, Poudiougou B, Ranque S, Doumbo O. Oblique decision trees for spatial pattern detection: optimal algorithm and application to malaria risk. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 5:22, 2005. [view]

Nisha V, Gad SS, Selvapandian D, Suganya V, Rajagopal V, Suganti P, Balraj V, Devasundaram J. Geographical information system (GIS) in investigation of an outbreak [of dengue fever]. Journal of Communicable Diseases, 37:39-43, 2005.

Reperant LA, Deplazes P. Cluster of Capillaria hepatica infections in non-commensal rodents from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Parasitology Research, 96:340-342, 2005.

Fang L, Yan L, Liang S, de Vlas SJ, Feng D, Han X, Zhao W, Xu B, Bian L, Yang H, Gong P, Richardus JH, Cao W. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China. BMC Infectious Diseases, 6:77, 2006. [view]

Bonilla RE. Distribución Espacio-Temporal de la Fiebre Dengue en Costa Rica. Población y Salud en Mesoamérica, 3:2:2. [view]

Gaudart J, Poudiougou B, Dicko A, Ranque S, Toure O, Sagara I, Diallo M, Diawara S, Ouattara A, Diakite M, Doumbo OK. Space-time clustering of childhood malaria at the household level: a dynamic cohort in a Mali village. BMC Public Health, 6:286, 2006. [view]

Mirghani SE, Nour BY, Bushra SM, Elhassan IM, Snow RW, Noor AM. The spatial-temporal clustering of Plasmodium falciparum infection over eleven years in Gezira State, The Sudan. Malaria Journal, 9:172, 2010. [view]

Haque U, Sunahara T, Hashizume M, Shields T, Yamamoto T, Haque R, Glass GE. Malaria prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in a hilly forest area of Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18908, 2011. [view]

Schmidt W-P, Suzuki M, Dinh Thiem V, White RG, Tsuzuki A, Yoshida LM, Yanai H, Haque U, Huu Tho L, Duc Anh D,Ariyoshi K. Population Density, Water Supply, and the Risk of Dengue Fever in Vietnam: Cohort Study and Spatial Analysis. PLoS Medicine, 8:8, e1001082, 2011. [view]

Winskill P, Rowland M, Mtove G, Malima RC, Kirby MJ. Malaria risk factors in north-east Tanzania. Malaria Journal 10:98, 2011. [view]

Washington CH, Radday J, Streit TG, Boyd HA, Beach MJ, Addiss DG, Lovince R, Lovegrove MC, Lafontant JG, Lammie PJ, Hightower AW. Spatial clustering of filarial transmission before and after a mass drug administration in a setting of low infection prevalence. Filaria Journal, 3: 3, 2004. [view]

Bhattarai NR, Van der Auwera G, Rijal S, Picado A, Speybroeck N, Khanal B, De Doncker S, Lal Das M, Ostyn B, Davies C, Coosemans M, Berkvens D, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC. Domestic animals and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16:231-237, 2010. [view]

Cook J, Kleinschmidt I, Schwabe C, Nseng G, Bousema T, Corran PH, Riley EM, Drakeley CJ. Serological markers suggest heterogeneity of effectiveness of malaria control interventions on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. PLoS One, 6:e25137, 2011. [view]

Nourein AB, Abass MA, Nugud AH, El Hassan I, Snow RW, Noor AM. Identifying residual foci of Plasmodium falciparum infections for malaria elimination: the urban context of Khartoum, Sudan. PLoS One, 6:e16948, 2011. [view]

Rochlin I, Turbow D, Gomez F, Ninivaggi DV, Campbell SR. Predictive mapping of human risk for West Nile virus (WNV) based on environmental and socioeconomic factors. PLoS One. 6:e23280, 2011. [view]

Impoinvil DE, Solomon T, Schluter WW, Rayamajhi A, Bichha RP, Shakya G, Caminade C, Baylis M. The spatial heterogeneity between Japanese encephalitis incidence distribution and environmental variables in Nepal. PLoS One, 6:e22192, 2011. [view]

Bejon P, Turner L, Lavstsen T, Cham G, Olotu A, Drakeley CJ, Lievens M, Vekemans J, Savarese B, Lusingu J, von Seidlein L, Bull PC, Marsh K, Theander TG. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. PLoS One, 6:e21711, 2011. [view]

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Other Infectious Diseases

Cousens S, Smith PG, Ward H, Everington D, Knight RSG, Zeidler M, Stewart G, Smith-Bathgate EAB, Macleod MA, Mackenzie J, Will RG. Geographical distribution of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Great Britain, 1994-2000. The Lancet, 357:1002-1007, 2001.

Huillard d'Aignaux J, Cousens SN, Delasnerie-Laupretre N, Brandel JP, Salomon D, Laplanche JL, Hauw JJ, Alperovitch A. Analysis of the geographical distribution of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in France between 1992 and 1998. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31: 490-495, 2002. [view]

Dreesman J, Scharlach H. Spatial-statistical analysis of infectious disease notification data in Lower Saxony. Gesundheitswesen, 66: 783-789, 2004.

Polack SR, Solomon AW, Alexander NDE, Massae PA, Safari S, Shao JF, Foster A, Mabey DC. The household distribution of trachoma in a Tanzanian village: an application of GIS to the study of trachoma. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 99: 218-225, 2005.

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Syndromic Surveillance

Heffernan R, Mostashari F, Das D, Karpati A, Kulldorff M, Weiss D. Syndromic surveillance in public health practice: The New York City emergency department system. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10:858-864, 2004. [view]

Minnesota Department of Health. Syndromic Surveillance: A New Tool to Detect Disease Outbreaks. Disease Control Newsletter, 32:16-17, 2004. [view]

Kleinman K, Abrams A, Kulldorff M, Platt R. A model-adjusted space-time scan statistic with an application to syndromic surveillance. Epidemiology and Infection, 2005, 133:409-419.

Nordin JD, Goodman MJ, Kulldorff M, Ritzwoller DP, Abrams AM, Kleinman K, Levitt MJ, Donahue J, Platt R. Simulated anthrax attacks and syndromic surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2005, 11:1394-98. [view]

Yih K, Abrams A, Kleinman K, Kulldorff M, Nordin J, Platt R. Ambulatory-care diagnoses as potential indicators of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness --- Minnesota. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54 Suppl:157-62, 2005. [view]

Besculides M, Heffernan R, Mostashari F, Weiss D. Evaluation of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection, New York City. BMC Public Health, 2006, 5:105. [view]

Horst MA, Coco AS. Observing the spread of common illnesses through a community: Using geographic information systems (GIS) for surveillance. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 23:32-41, 2010. [view]

van den Wijngaard CC, van Asten L, van Pelt W, Doornbos G, Nagelkerke NJ, Donker GA, van der Hoek W, Koopmans MP. Syndromic surveillance for local outbreaks of lower-respiratory infections: would it work? PLoS One, 29;e10406, 2010. [view]

Jones SG, Conner W, Song B, Gordon D, Jayakaran A. Comparing spatio-temporal clusters of arthropod-borne infections using administrative medical claims and state reported surveillance data. Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology, 2012.

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Cancer: Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality

Hjalmars U, Kulldorff M, Gustafsson G, Nagarwalla N. Childhood leukemia in Sweden: Using GIS and a spatial scan statistic for cluster detection. Statistics in Medicine, 15:707-715, 1996.

Kulldorff M, Feuer EJ, Miller BA, Freedman LS. Breast cancer in northeastern United States: A geographical analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146:161-170, 1997. [view]

Imai J. Spatial disease clustering in Kochi prefecture in Japan. National Institute of Public Health Epidemiology and Biostatistics Research, 57-96, 1998 (in Japanese).

VanEenwyk J, Bensley L, McBride D, Hoskins R, Solet D, McKeeman Brown A, Topiwala H, Richter A, Clark R. Addressing community health concerns around SeaTac Airport: Second Report. Washington State Department of Health, 1999. [view]

Hjalmars U, Kulldorff M, Wahlquist Y, Lannering B. Increased incidence rates but no space-time clustering of childhood malignant brain tumors in Sweden. Cancer, 85:2077-2090, 1999.

Viel JF, Arveux P, Baverel J, Cahn JY. Soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma clusters around a municipal solid waste incinerator with high dioxin emission levels. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152:13-19, 2000.

New York State Department of Health. Cancer Surveillance Improvement Initiative, 2001. [view]

Jemal A, Kulldorff M, Devesa SS, Hayes RB, Fraumeni JF. A geographic analysis of prostate cancer mortality in the United States. International Journal of Cancer, 101:168-174, 2002.

Michelozzi P, Capon A, Kirchmayer U, Forastiere F, Biggeri A, Barca A, Perucci CA. Adult and childhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155:1096-1103, 2002.

Zhan FB, Lin H. Geographic patterns of cancer mortality clusters in Texas, 1990 to 1997. Texas Medicine, 99:58-64, 2003.

Buntinx F, Geys H, Lousbergh D, Broeders G, Cloes E, Dhollander D, Op De Beeck L, Vanden Brande J, Van Waes A, Molenberghs G. Geographical differences in cancer incidence in the Belgian province of Limburg. European Journal of Cancer, 39:2058-72, 2003.

Santamaria Ulloa C. Evaluación de alarmas por cáncer utilizando análisis espacial: una aplicación para Costa Rica. Reivista Costarricense de Salud Pública, 12:18-22, 2003. [view]

Sheehan TJ, DeChello LM, Kulldorff M, Gregorio DI, Gershman S, Mroszczyk M. The geographic distribution of breast cancer incidence in Massachusetts 1988-1997, adjusted for covariates. International Journal of Health Geographics, 2004, 3:17. [view]

Fang Z, Kulldorff M, Gregorio DI. Brain cancer in the United States, 1986-95: A geographic analysis. Neuro-Oncology, 2004, 6:179-187.

Hsu CE, Jacobson HE, Soto Mas F. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis. International Journal of Health Geographics 3:4, 2004. [view]

Han DW, Rogerson PA, Nie J, Bonner MR, Vena JE, Vito D, Muti P, Trevisan M, Edge SB, Freudenheim JL. Geographic clustering of residence in early life and subsequent risk of breast cancer ( United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 15:921-929, 2004.

Campo J, Comber H, Gavin A T. All-Ireland Cancer Statistics 1998-2000. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry / National Cancer Registry, 2004. [view]

Hayran M. Analyzing factors associated with cancer occurrence: A geographical systems approach. Turkish Journal of Cancer, 34:67-70, 2004. [view]

Fukuda Y, Umezaki M, Nakamura K, Takano T. Variations in societal characteristics of spatial disease clusters: examples of colon, lung and breast cancer in Japan. International Journal of Health Geographics, 4:16, 2005. [view]

Ozonoff A, Webster T, Vieira V, Weinberg J, Ozonoff D, Aschengrau A. Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 4:19, 2005. [view]

DeChello LM, Sheehan TJ. The geographic distribution of melanoma incidence in Massachusetts, adjusted for covariates. Int J Health Geogr. 2006;5:31. [view]

Gregorio DI, Samociuk H, DeChello L, Swede H. Effects of study area size on geographic characterizations of health events: prostate cancer incidence in Southern New England, USA, 1994–1998. Int J Health Geogr. 2006;5:8. [view]

Chen Y, Yi Q, Mao Y. Cluster of liver cancer and immigration: a geographic analysis of incidence data for Ontario 1998–2002. Int J Health Geogr. 2008;7:28. [view]

Lorenzo-Luaces Alvarez P, Guerra-Yi ME, Faes C, Galán Alvarez Y, Molenberghs G. Spatial analysis of breast and cervical cancer incidence in small geographical areas in Cuba, 1999-2003. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 18:395-403, 2009.

Amin R, Bohnert A, Holmes L, Rajasekaran A, Assanasen C. Epidemiologic mapping of Florida childhood cancer clusters. Pediatric Blood Cancer, 54:511-518, 2010.

Liu-Mares W, MacKinnon JA, ShermanR, Fleming LE, Rocha-Lima C, Hu, JJ, Lee DJ. Pancreatic cancer clusters and arsenic-contaminated drinking water wells in Florida. BMC Cancer, 13, 111, 2013. [view]

Baastrup Nordsborg R, Meliker JR, Kjær Ersbøll A, Jacquez GM, Raaschou-Nielsen O. Space-Time Clustering of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Using Residential Histories in a Danish Case-Control Study. PLoS One, 8, e60800, 2013. [view]

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Cancer: Early versus Late Detection, Stage and Grade

Roche LM, Skinner R, Weinstein RB. Use of a geographic information system to identify and characterize areas with high proportions of distant stage breast cancer. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 8:26-32, 2002.

Thomas AJ, Carlin BP. Late detection of breast and colorectal cancer in Minnesota counties: an application of spatial smoothing and clustering. Statistics in Medicine, 22:113-127, 2003.

Sheehan TJ, DeChello LM. A space-time analysis of the proportion of late stage breast cancer in Massachusetts, 1988 to 1997. International Journal of Health Geographics, 4:15, 2005. [view]

Klassen A, Curriero F, Kulldorff M, Alberg AJ, Platz EA, Neloms ST. Missing stage and grade in Maryland prostate cancer surveillance data, 1992-1997. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30:S77-87, 2006. [view]

Pollack LA, Gotway CA, Bates JH, Parikh-Patel A, Richards TB, Seeff LC, Hodges H, Kassim S. Use of the spatial scan statistic to identify geographic variations in late stage colorectal cancer in California ( United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 17:449–457, 2006.

DeChello LM, Sheehan TJ. Spatial analysis of colorectal cancer incidence and proportion of late-stage in Massachusetts residents: 1995–1998. Int J Health Geogr. 2007;6:20. [view]

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Cancer: Screening, Treatment and Survival

Sheehan TJ, Gershman ST, MacDougal L, Danley R, Mrosszczyk M, Sorensen AM, Kulldorff M. Geographical surveillance of breast cancer screening by tracts, towns and zip codes. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 6: 48-57, 2001.

Gregorio DI, Kulldorff M, Barry L, Samociuk H, Zarfos K. Geographic differences in primary therapy for early stage breast cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 2001; 8:844-849, 2001. [view]

Henry KA, Niu X, Boscoe FP. Geographic disparities in colorectal cancer survival. International Journal of Health Geographics 2009, 8:48. [view]

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Cardiovascular Diseases

Kuehl KS, Loffredo CA. A cluster of hypoplastic left heart malformation in Baltimore, Maryland  Pediatric Cardiology, 27:25-31, 2006.

Li XY, Chen K. Scan statistic theory and its application in spatial epidemiology (in Chinese). Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi., 29:828-31, 2008.

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Rheumatology and Auto-Immune Diseases

Walsh SJ, Fenster JR. Geographical clustering of mortality from systemic sclerosis in the Southeastern United States, 1981-90. Journal of Rheumatology, 24:2348-2352, 1997.

Walsh SJ, DeChello LM. Geographical variation in mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus in the United States. Lupus, 10:637-646, 2001.

López-Abente G, Morales-Piga A, Bachiller-Corral FJ, Illera-Martín O, Martín-Domenech R, Abraira V. Identification of possible areas of high prevalence of Paget’s disease of bone in Spain. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 21:635-368, 2003.

Donnan PT, Parratt JDE, Wilson SV, Forbes RB, O'Riordan JI, Swingler RJ. Multiple sclerosis in Tayside, Scotland: detection of clusters using a spatial scan statistic. Multiple Sclerosis, 11:403-408, 2005.

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Liver Diseases

Ala A, Stanca CM, Bu-Ghanim M, Ahmado I, Branch AD, Schiano TD, Odin JA, Bach N. Increased prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis near superfund toxic waste sites. Hepatology, 43:525-531, 2006.

Stanca CM, Babar J, Singal V, Ozdenerol E, Odin JA. Pathogenic role of environmental toxins in immune-mediated liver diseases. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 5:59-68, 2008.

McNally RJQ, Ducker S, James OFW. Are Transient Environmental Agents Involved in the Cause of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis? Evidence from Space-Time Clustering Analysis. Hepatology, 50:1169-1174, 2009.

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Green C, Hoppa RD, Young TK, Blanchard JF. Geographic analysis of diabetes prevalence in an urban area. Social Science and Medicine, 57:551-560, 2003.

Aamodt G, Stene LC, Njølstad PR, Søvik O, Joner G, for the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Study Group. Spatiotemporal trends and age-period-cohort modelling of the incidence of type 1 diabetes among children ages <15 years in Norway 1973-1982 and 1989-2003. Diabetes Care, 30:884-889, 2007.

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Allergy and Asthma

Yiannakoulias N, Schopflocher DP, Svenson LW. Using administrative data to understand the geography of case ascertainment. Chronic Diseases in Canada, 30:20-28, 2009. [view]

Lee H, Kim GS. Geographical and sociodemographic risk factors for allergic diseases in Korean children. Asian Nursing Research, 5:1-10, 2011.

Torabi M. Spatial disease cluster detection: An application to childhood asthma in Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Biometrics and Biostatistics, S7:010, 2012. [view]

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Neurological Diseases

Sabel CE, Boyle PJ, Löytönen M, Gatrell AC, Jokelainen M, Flowerdew R, Maasilta P. Spatial clustering of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Finland at place of birth and place of death. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157: 898-905, 2003.

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Birth Defects and Other Congenital Outcomes

Kharrazi M, et al. Pregnancy outcomes around the B.K.K. landfill, West Covina, California: An analysis by address. California Department of Health Services, 1998.

Bell S.Spatial Analysis of Disease - Applications. In Beam C (ed). Biostatistical Applications in Cancer Research. Boston: Kluwer p151-182, 2002. [view]

Forand SP, Talbot TO, Druschel C, Cross PK. Data quality and the spatial analysis of disease rates: congenital malformations in New York State. Health and Place, 8:191-199, 2002.

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Analysis of birth defect data in the vicinity of the Redfield plume area in southeastern Denver county: 1989-1999. Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment, 2002. [view]

Boyle E, Johnson H, Kelly A, McDonnell R. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites. Irish Medical Journal, 97:16-18, 2004.

Ozdenerol E, Williams BL, Kang SY, Magsumbol MS. Comparison of spatial scan statistic and spatial filtering in estimating low birth weight clusters. International Journal of Health Geographics, 4:19, 2005. [view]

Viel JF, Floret N, Mauny F. Spatial and space-time scan statistics to detect low clusters of sex ratio. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 12:289-299, 2005.

Grady SC, Enander H. Geographic analysis of low birthweight and infant mortality in Michigan using automated zoning methodology International Journal of Health Geographics 2009, 8:10. [view]

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George M, Wiklund L, Aastrup M, Pousette J, Thunholm B, Saldeen T, Wernroth L, Zaren B, Holmberg L. Incidence and geographical distribution of sudden infant death syndrome in relation to content of nitrate in drinking water and groundwater levels. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 31: 1083-1094, 2001.

Sankoh OA, Ye Y, Sauerborn R, Muller O, Becher H. Clustering of childhood mortality in rural Burkina Faso. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30:485-492, 2001. [view]

Ali M, Asefaw T, Byass P, Beyene H, Karup Pedersen F. Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 83:27-33, 2005. [view]

Awini E, Mattah P, Sankoh O, Gyapong M. Spatial variations in childhood mortalities at the Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance System site of the INDEPTH Network in Ghana. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2010.

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Yiannakoulias N, Rowe BH, Svenson LW, Schopflocher DP, Kelly K, Voaklander DC. Zones of prevention: the geography of fall injuries in the elderly. Social Science and Medicine, 57:2065-73, 2003.

Vaneckova P, Beggs PJ, Jacobson CR. Spatial analysis of heat-related mortality among the elderly between 1993 and 2004 in Sydney, Australia. Social Science and Medicine, 70:293-304, 2010.

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Margai F, Henry N. A community-based assessment of learning disabilities using environmental and contextual risk factors. Social Science and Medicine, 56: 1073-1085, 2003.

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Brain Imaging

Yoshida M, Naya Y, Miyashita Y. Anatomical organization of forward fiber projections from area TE to perirhinal neurons representing visual long-term memory in monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100:4257-4262, 2003. [view]

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Brain Imaging

Yoshida M, Naya Y, Miyashita Y. Anatomical organization of forward fiber projections from area TE to perirhinal neurons representing visual long-term memory in monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100:4257-4262, 2003. [view]

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Pharmaceutical Drugs and Vaccines

Copeland KR, Allen AE, Basic Models for Mapping Prescription Drug Data. Proceedings of the ASA Section on Survey Research Methods, 2904-2909, 2005. [view]

Moore GE, Ward MP, Kulldorff M, Caldanaro RJ, Guptill LF, Lewis HB, Glickman LT. A space-time cluster of adverse events associated with a canine rabies vaccine. Vaccine, 23:5557-62, 2005.

Omer SB, Enger S, Moulton LH, Halsey NA, Stokley S, Salmon DA. Geographic clustering of nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements and associations with geographic clustering of pertussis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168:1389-1396, 2008. [view]

Brownstein JS, Green TC, Cassidy TA, Butler SF. Geographic information systems and pharmacoepidemiology: using spatial cluster detection to monitor local patterns of prescription opioid abuse. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 19:627-637, 2010.

King M, Essic C. The geography of antidepressant, antipsychotic, and stimulant utilization in the United States, Health and Place, 20:32-38, 2013.

Atwell JE, Van Otterloo J, Zipprich J, Winter K, Harriman K, Salmon DA, Halsey NA, Omer SB. Nonmedical vaccine exemptions and pertussis in California 2010. Pediatrics, 132:624-630, 2013. [view]

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Alcohol, Tobacco and Recreational Drugs

Hanson CE, Wieczorek WF. Alcohol mortality: a comparison of spatial clustering methods. Social Science and Medicine, 55:791-802, 2002.

Sudakin D, Power LE. Regional and temporal variation in methamphetamine-related incidents: applications of spatial and temporal scan statistics. Clinical Toxicology, 47:243-247, 2009.

Chong S, Nelson M, Byun R, Harris L, Eastwood J, Jalaludin B. Geospatial analyses to identify clusters of adverse antenatal factors for targeted interventions. International Journal of Health Geographics, 2013, 12:46. [view]

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Dahly D. Obesity clustering in Cebu, Philippines: an application of satscan and the spatial scan statistic Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65, A71, 2011. [view]

Chalkias C, Papadopoulos AG, Mpenekos G, Tambalis K, Psarra G, Sidossis L. Spatial variability of childhood obesity in respeose to socioeconomic heterogenety. The case of Athens metropolitan area, Greece. Proceedings of the 17th European Colloquium on Quantitative and Theoretical Geography, 605-611, 2011. [view]

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Sports and Recreation

López FA, Martínez JA, Ruiz M. Análisis espacial de lanzamientos en baloncesto; el caso de L.A. Lakers / Spatial pattern analysis of shot attempts in basketball; The case of LA Lakers. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 13: 585-613, 2013. [view]

Schmicker RH. An application of SaTScan to evaluate the spatial distribution of corner kick goals in major league soccer. International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 12:70-79, 2013.

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Accidents and Suicide

Nkhoma ET, Hsu CE, Hunt VI, Harris AM. Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, U.S., 1980 - 2001. International Journal of Health Geographics, 3:25, 2004. [view]

Exeter DJ, Boyle PJ. Does young adult suicide cluster geographically in Scotland? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61:731-736, 2007.

Warden CR. Comparison of Poisson and Bernoulli spatial cluster analyses of pediatric injuries in a fire district. International Journal of Health Geographics, 7:51, 2008. [view]

Mesoudi A. The cultural dynamics of copycat suicide. PLoS One, 4:e7252, 2009. [view]

Saman DM, Cole HP, Odoi A, Myers ML, Carey DI, Westneat SC. A spatial cluster analysis of tractor overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002.PLoS One, 7:e30532, 2012. [view]

Amin R, Ritter EK, Cossette L. A Geospatial Analysis of Shark Attack Rates for the Coast of California: 1994–2010. Journal of Environment and Ecology, 3:246-255, 2012.

Fuchs S, Ornetsmüller C, Totschnig R. Spatial scan statistics in vulnerability assessment – an application to mountain hazards. Natural Hazards 64:2129-2151, 2012.

Campo J. Firearm deaths in Washington State. Washington State Health Services Research Brief No. 71, 2013. [view]

Jones P, Gunnell D, Platt S, Scourfield J, Lloyd K, Huxley P, John A, Kamran B, Wells C, Dennis M. Identifying Probable Suicide Clusters in Wales Using National Mortality Data, PLoS One, 8:e71713, 2013. [view]

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Collado Chaves A. Fecundidad adolescente en el gran área metropolitana de Costa Rica. Población y Salud en Mesoamérica, 1:4, 2003. [view]

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Veterinary Medicine, Domestic Animals

Norström M, Pfeiffer DU, Jarp J. A space-time cluster investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Norwegian cattle herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 47: 107-119, 2000.

Ward MP. Blowfly strike in sheep flocks as an example of the use of a time-space scan statistic to control confounding. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 49: 61-69, 2001.

United States Department of Agriculture. West Nile virus in equids in the Northeastern United States in 2000. USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, 2001. [view]

Doherr MG, Hett AR, Rufenacht J, Zurbriggen A, Heim D. Geographical clustering of cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) born in Switzerland after the feed ban. Veterinary Record, 151: 467-472, 2002.

Perez AM, Ward MP, Torres P, Ritacco V. Use of spatial statistics and monitoring data to identify clustering of bovine tuberculosis in Argentina. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 56: 63-74, 2002.

Schwermer H, Rufenacht J, Doherr MG, Heim D. Geographic distribution of BSE in Switzerland. Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde, 144:701-708, 2002.

Ward MP. Clustering of reported cases of leptospirosis among dogs in the United States and Canada. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 56:215-226, 2002.

Falconi F, Ochs H, Deplazes P. Serological cross-sectional survey of psoroptic sheep scab in Switzerland. Veterinary Parasitology, 109:119-127, 2002.

Knuesel R, Segner H, Wahli T. A survey of viral diseases in farmed and feral salmonids in Switzerland. Journal of Fish Diseases, 26:167-182, 2003.

Berke O, Grosse Beilage E. Spatial relative risk mapping of pseudorabies-seropositive pig herds in an animal-dense region. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, B50: 322–325, 2003.

Abrial D, Calavas D, Lauvergne N, Morignat E, Ducrot C. Descriptive spatial analysis of BSE in western France. Veterinary Research, 34:749-60, 2003.

Sheridan HA, McGrath G, White P, Fallon R, Shoukri MM, Martin SW. A temporal-spatial analysis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Irish cattle herds, from 1996 to 2000. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 69:19-25, 2005. [view]

Guerin MT, Martin SW, Darlington GA, Rajic A. A temporal study of Salmonella serovars in animals in Alberta between 1990 and 2001. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 69:88-89, 2005. [view]

Allepuz A,López-Quílez A, Forte A, Fernández G, Casal J. Spatial analysis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Galicia, Spain (2000-2005). Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 79:174-85, 2007.

Heres L, Brus DJ, Hagenaars TJ. Spatial analysis of BSE cases in the Netherlands. BMC Veterinary Research, 4:21, 2008. [view]

Frossling J, Nodtvedt A, Lindberg A, Björkman C. Spatial analysis of Neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from Sweden. Geospatial Health, 3:39-45, 2008.

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Veterinary Medicine, Wildlife

Smith KL, DeVos V, Bryden H, Price LB, Hugh-Jones ME, Keim P. Bacillus anthracis diversity in Kruger National Park. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38:3780-3784, 2000. [view]

Berke O, von Keyserlingk M, Broll S, Kreienbrock L. On the distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Lower Saxony: identification of a high risk area by spatial epidemiological cluster analysis. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 115:428-434, 2002.

Miller MA, Gardner IA, Kreuder C, Paradies DM, Worcester KR, Jessup DA, Dodd E, Harris MD, Ames JA, Packham AE, Conrad PA. Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). International Journal for Parasitology, 32:997-1006, 2002.

Hoar BR, Chomel BB, Rolfe DL, Chang CC, Fritz CL, Sacks BN, Carpenter TE. Spatial analysis of Yersinia pestis and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii seroprevalence in California coyotes (Canis latrans). Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 56:299-311, 2003.

Olea-Popelka FJ, Griffin JM, Collins JD, McGrath G, Martin SW. Bovine tuberculosis in badgers in four areas in Ireland: does tuberculosis cluster? Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 59:103-111, 2003.

Joly DO, Ribic CA, Langenberg JA, Beheler K, Batha CA, Dhuey BJ, Rolley RE, Bartelt G, Van Deelen TR, Samual MD. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer. Emerging Infectious Disease, 9: 599-601, 2003. [view]

Miller MA, Grigg ME, Kreuder C, James ER, Melli AC, Crosbie PR, Jessup DA, Boothroyd JC, Brownstein D, Conrad PA. An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. International Journal for Parasitology, 34:275-284, 2004.

Olea-Popelka FJ, Flynn O, Costello E, McGrath G, Collins JD, O’Keeffe JO, Kelton DF, Berke O, Martin SW. Spatial relationship between Mycobacterium bovis strains in cattle and badgers in four areas in Ireland. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 71:57-70, 2005.

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Webb NF, Hebblewhite M, Merrill EH. Statistical Methods for Identifying Wolf Kill Sites Using Global Positioning System Locations. Journal of Wildlife Management, 2008, 72, 798-807.

McPhee HM, Webb NF, Merrill EH. Hierarchical predation: Wolf (Canis lupus) selection along hunt paths and at kill sites. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 2012, 90:555-563.

Ouko EO. Where, when and why are there elephant poaching hotspots in Kenya? MSc Thesis, University of Twente, Netherlands, 2013. [view]

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Porcasi X, Catalá SS, Hrellac H, Scavuzzo MC, Gorla DE. Infestation of Rural Houses by Triatoma Infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Southern Area of Gran Chaco in Argentina. Journal of Medical Entomology, 43:1060-1067, 2006.

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Spindler BD, Chipps SR, Klumb RA, Wimberly MC. Spatial analysis of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus distribution in the Missouri River, South Dakota. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 25:8-13, 2009.

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Bayon C, Pei MH, Ruiz C, Hunter T. Genetic structure and spatial distribution of the mycoparasite Sphaerellopsis filum on Melampsora larici-epitea in a short-rotation coppice willow planting. Plant Pathology, 56:616-623, 2007.

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Coulston JW, Riitters KH. Geographic Analysis of Forest Health Indicators Using Spatial Scan Statistics. Environmental Management, 31: 764-773, 2003.

Riitters KH, Coulston JW. Hot spots of perforated forest in the eastern United States. Environmental Management, 35:483-492, 2005.

Tuia D, Ratle F, Lasaponara R, Telesca L, Kanevski M. Scan statistics analysis of forest fire clusters. Communications in Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulations, 13:1689-94, 2008.

Tonini M, Tuia D, Ratle F. Detection of clusters using space–time scan statistics.  International Journal of Wildland Fire, 18 830–836, 2009.

Fei S. Applying hotspot detection methods in forestry: A case study of Chestnut Oak regeneration. International Journal of Forestry Research., 815292, 2010. [view]

Vega Orozco C, Tonini M, Conedera M, Kanveski M. Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires. Geoinformatica, 16: 653-673, 2012. [view]

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Vadrevu KP. Analysis of fire events and controlling factors in eastern India using spatial scan and multivariate statistics. Geografiska Annaler, 90A: 315-328, 2008.

Sudakin DL, Horowitz Z, Giffin S. Regional variation in the incidence of symptomatic pesticide exposures: Applications of geographic information systems. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 40:767-773, 2002.

Krolik J, Maier A, Evans G, Belanger P, Hall G, Joyce A, Majury A. A spatial analysis of private well water Escherichia coli contamination in southern Ontario. Geospatial Health 8:65-75, 2013.

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Natural Disasters

Witham CS, Oppenheimer C. Mortality in England during the 1783-4 Laki Craters eruption. Bulletin of Volcanology, 67:15-25, 2004.

Stevenson JR Emrich CT Mitchell JT, Cutter SL. Using building permits to monitor disaster recovery: A spatio-temporal case study of coastal Mississippi following hurricane Katrina, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 37:S57-68, 2010.

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Ziemke J. From battles to massacres. 3rd Annual Harvard-Yale-MIT Graduate Student Conference on Order, Conflict and Violence, 2008. [view]

O'Loughlin J, Witmer F, Linke A. The Afghanistan-Pakistan Wars 2008–2009: Micro-geographies, Conflict Diffusion, and Clusters of Violence. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 2010, 51, 437-71. [view]

O’Loughlin J, Witmer FDW, Linke AM, Thorwardson N. Peering into the Fog of War: The Geography of the WikiLeaks Afghanistan War Logs, 2004–2009. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 51:472–495, 2010. [view]

O'Loughlin J, Witmer FDW, The Localized Geographies of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999-2007', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 101: 178-201, 2011. [view]

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Jefferis ES. A multi-method exploration of crime hot spots: SaTScan results. National Institute of Justice, Crime Mapping Research Center, 1998.

Kaminski RJ, Jefferis ES, Chanhatasilpa C. A spatial analysis of American police killed in the line of duty. In Turnbull et al. (eds.), Atlas of crime: Mapping the criminal landscape. Phoenix , AZ : Oryx Press, 2000.

LeBeau JL. Demonstrating the analytical utility of GIS for police operations: A final report. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 2000. [view]

Beato Filho CC, Assunção RM, Silva BF, Marinho FC, Reis IA, Almeida MC. Homicide clusters and drug traffic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil from 1995 to 1999. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 17:1163-1171, 2001. [view]

Ceccato V, Haining R. Crime in border regions: The Scandinavian case of Öresund, 1998-2001. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 94:807-826, 2004.

Ceccato V. Homicide in Sao Paulo, Brazil: Assessing the spatial-temporal and weather variations. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25:307-321, 2005.

Minamisava R, Nouer SS, de Morais Neto OL, Melo LK, Andrade ALS. Spatial clusters of violent deaths in a newly urbanized region of Brazil: Highlighting the social disparities. International Journal of Health Geographics, 8:66, 2009. [view]

Nakaya T, Yano K. Visualising crime clusters in a space-time cube: An exploratory data-analysis approach using space-time kernel density estimation and scan statistics. Transactions in GIS, 14:223-239, 2010.

Leitner M, Helbich M. The Impact of Hurricanes on Crime: A Spatio-temporal Analysis in the City of Houston, TX. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 37:214-222, 2011.

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Urban and Rural Planning

Huang L, Stinchcomb DG, Pickle LW, Dill J, Berrigan D. Identifying clusters of active transportation using spatial scan statistics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37:157-166, 2009.

Helbich M. Beyond potsuburbia? Multifunctional service agglomeration in Vienna’s urban fringe. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 2011.

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History and Archeology

Usher BM, Allen KL. Identifying kinship clusters: SaTScan for genetic spatial analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement, 126,S40,210, 2005.

Wang F, Hartmann J, Luo W, Huang P. GIS-based spatial analysis of Tai place names in southern China: An exploratory study of methodology. Annals of GIS, 12:1-9, 2006. [view]

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Marcos RDLF, Marcos CDLF. From star complexes to the field: Open cluster families, 672:342-351, 2008.

Bidin CM, Marcos RD, Marcos CD, Carraro, G. Not an open cluster after all: the NGC 6863 asterism in Aquila. Astronomy and Astrphysics, 510:A44, 2010. [view]

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